Irrespective of which subject you take into consideration, the learning material has an important role to play when it comes to studies. While terms like meiosis and mitosis may make botany sound pretty interesting for adults, the chances of kids finding it interesting are pretty dull. For kids to take keen interest in their studies, the learning material has to be simple, which is exactly what this information on plant life cycle is all about.
Life Cycle of a Flowering Plant
Basically, the cyclic process which highlights plant growth―stage by stage―right from seed dormancy, which is the beginning of the entire process, to fertilization is known as plant life cycle. It is important to understand this process, as it forms the base for various disciplines, including botany and horticulture. In order to make it easier to understand, the entire process can be divided into different stages.
The life cycle of a plant begins with a seed―the storehouse of all plant parts, including stem, roots, and leaves in their dormant form. Other than various parts of the plant, it also contains all nutrients required for the process of sprouting. A seed may lie in the soil dormant for a long time until it is exposed to favorable conditions required for plant growth, wherein there is ample oxygen and warmth. In favorable conditions, the germination of the seed begins with the roots making their way down into the soil. This is very important, considering that the roots derive necessary nutrients from the soil and facilitate the growth of plant above the surface in the form of sprout.
Sprouting and Growth
As the sprout surfaces, it slowly turns to a green color which indicates the presence of chlorophyll in the same. This helps the new plant absorb sunlight and prepare its own food by resorting to the process of photosynthesis. The plant requires soil, water, and sunlight for proper growth. More importantly, it requires the same in abundance in this stage. The roots, which are now firmly anchored in the ground, derive nutrients and water from the soil, while its leaves trap sunlight necessary for photosynthesis. As the entire process takes place in the leaves, the necessary nutrients and water are transported to the site via plant stem.
When the plant reaches a certain stage, it stops growing and all its energy is diverted towards the process of reproduction. A mature plant has all the parts required for this process. Absence of this step can result in extinction of the particular species and therefore, it plays a crucial role in the entire setup. In the process of pollination, the pollens are transferred from the anther to the stigma of a plant. The pollen can be transferred by some force of nature, such as wind, or by some carrier with which the plant shares a symbiotic relationship. It is the process of pollination which facilitates the development of seeds―almost all of which grow within the fruits.
If the seeds are not dispersed, the plants will grow at one particular place and compete with each other for available resources, which, in turn, will hamper their growth. There are various methods by which seeds are dispersed. When the fruit ripens it falls and breaks open, which results in dispersion of seeds. Similarly, when animals or humans eat fruits, they throw the seeds out.
These seeds eventually come in contact with the soil and grow into a full-fledged plant. When these seeds dry up, they are ready for the long journey which we refer to as plant life cycle. And thus, even though the parent plant dies eventually, it continues to live in form of several other plants which were developed by its seeds.
Basically, there exist different types of plants, and the life cycle of each of these, differs to a certain extent. Annual plants (such as tomatoes) have a life cycle spanning one growing season, whereas the same in perennial plants (such as roses) spans a period of 3 - 4 years.