Dicot Plants

Dicot Plants
Dicots are a particular classification of plants. The article below will educate you on dicot plants and some examples of dicots.
Plants are broadly classified into two categories - angiosperms and gymnosperms. Gymnosperm is a taxonomic class including plants whose seeds are not enclosed in an ovule. They are also known as plants with 'naked seeds'. Plants with seeds covered with plant tissues, i.e., flowering plants, are included in the class angiosperms, which is the largest phylum of plants, containing more than 250,000 different plant species. Angiosperms are further placed into two different categories, based on the number of their seed leaves, or cotyledons. The plants containing one cotyledon in their embryo are termed as monocotyledons, and those with two cotyledons are known as dicotyledons.

Types of Dicotyledons

Most of the plants that we see around are dicots. There are 199,350 different species of plants included within this group. They are divided into several different families depending on the dicot plant structures. Some examples of dicot plant families are as follows:
  • Myrtaceae
  • Rutaceae
  • Asteraceae
  • Epacridaceae
  • Proteaceae
  • Casuarinaceae
  • Rhamnaceae
  • Leguminosae
  • Mimosaceae
  • Rubiaceae
  • Euphorbiaceae
  • Lauraceae
  • Brassicaceae
  • Apiaceae
  • Lamiaceae
  • Scorphulariaceae
  • Caryophyllaceae
These were some of the common plant families belonging to the class dicots. Out of the 400 plant families that belong to the group of angiosperms, about 80 are monocots, rest all are dicots.

Dicot Plants Characteristics

Dicot plants differ in structures of their seeds, foliage and flowers, from the monocotyledons. They can be easily distinguished by studying their distinct characteristics.

Seed

The most important difference between the monocots and dicots is the number of embryonic leaves, or cotyledons. There are two cotyledons in the seeds of these plants that actually emerge above the soil, when the seed germinates. They then turn green and form the first two leaves of the new plant.

Leaves

The leaves of the plants have veins that form a branched pattern, unlike monocots, in which they run parallel. The veins are actually netted or webbed on the whole surface of the leaf.

Vascular Structure

The stems have vascular bundles, consisting of two structures, the xylem and the phloem. The xylem helps to transport water and minerals from the root to the other parts of the plant and the phloem transports food that is made in the leaves, to the storage organs. These vascular bundles are arranged in a circular manner around the edge of the stem.

Flowers

The flower parts are usually present in fours or fives. Sometimes, they are found in multiples of either numbers. These flower parts include petals, sepals and pistils, or the reproductive parts of the plant.

Roots

Roots are often fibrous and branched. They branch out in many smaller parts that form a dense network of root system, unlike monocot plants, that have a tap root system.

Examples of Dicotyledon Plants

Some common examples include:
  • Rose
  • Magnolia
  • Pansies
  • Marigolds
  • Sunflowers
  • Buttercups
  • Asters
  • Dandelions
  • Maple
  • Grapes
  • Strawberries
  • Tomatoes
  • Squash
  • Beans
  • Peas
  • Potatoes
  • Peanuts
  • Lentils
  • Oak
Most of the plants we see around are dicots. They are generally broad leaf trees, ornamental flowers, fruits and vegetables. Now, that you know the dicot plant characteristics, I'm sure you will be able to identify the dicot plants around!
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